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JoseRuiz

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Caesar Augusto
« on: August 19, 2014, 14:18 »
Today marks 2000 years from the death of Caesar Augustus, the first Roman emperor, who ruled for more than four decades.

Augusto, born with the name "Gaius Octavius Turino", was adopted by his great-uncle Julius Caesar in his will in the year 44 BC, when he was 19, and became his heir after his assassination. It became known as Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian until, 27 BC, then the Senate, in a solemn session, proclaimed to Rome and to the world that "he was someone special, who had a gift and gave him the title of Augustus ". He was the first called in this way.

He founded some 70 cities in the world "and only to one he called by his full name: Caesar Augusta (Zaragoza)."

The anniversary of his death (on August 19, 14 AD, in Nola, Italy) is celebrated in Zaragoza in the 'Year of Augustus', a year of events in his honor.

He died a month before to meet the 76, "a very advanced age for the time, and he died governing."

My tribute.
 

Atlantis

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Re: Caesar Augusto
« Reply #1 on: August 19, 2014, 22:27 »
My tribute.

Tribute to the tyrant and death to democracy? Or did I get something wrong here?

Perhaps the Latins among us can enlighten a poor barbarian, but wasn't he the guy that started the deification of Roman emperors that in the end led to the downfall of Rome?


Conti

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Re: Caesar Augusto
« Reply #2 on: August 19, 2014, 23:01 »
Tribute to the tyrant and death to democracy? Or did I get something wrong here?

Perhaps the Latins among us can enlighten a poor barbarian, but wasn't he the guy that started the deification of Roman emperors that in the end led to the downfall of Rome?

I stumbled on a German article about him just a few days ago, Augustus: Virtuose der Macht. The article sheds a positive light on Octavian and calls him a political genius.

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Vor 2000 Jahren starb der erste römische Kaiser. Vier Jahrzehnte hatte er regiert, die von ihm geschaffene Ordnung hielt noch hunderte von Jahren. Begünstigt zwar durch gesellschaftliche Krisen, beherrschte Augustus dennoch meisterlich Techniken der Macht. Was zeichnete dieses Politgenie aus?

I'm not sure Octavian was really the initiator of the deification of Roman emperors. I have a vague memory of deification as something that happened somehow spontaneously in the Eastern, hellenistic half of the empire and that Rome initially resisted.

The following is a Wikipedia quote.

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In 30/29 BC, the koina of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to worship Octavian as their "deliverer" or "saviour".[49] This was by no means a novel request but it placed Octavian in a difficult position. He must satisfy popularist and traditionalist expectations and these could be notoriously incompatible. Marius Gratidianus's popular support and cult had ended in his public and spectacular death in 82 BC, at the hands of his enemies in the Senate; likewise Caesar's murder now marked an hubristic connection between living divinity and death.[48] Octavian had to respect the overtures of his Eastern allies, acknowledge the nature and intent of Hellenic honours and formalise his own pre-eminence among any possible rivals: he must also avoid a potentially fatal identification in Rome as a monarchic-deistic aspirant. It was decided that cult honours to him could be jointly offered to dea Roma, at cult centres to be built at Pergamum and Nicomedia. Provincials who were also Roman citizens were not to worship the living emperor, but might worship dea Roma and the divus Julius at precincts in Ephesus and Nicaea.[50][51][52]

In 29 BC Octavian dedicated the temple of the divus Julius at the site of Caesar's cremation. Not only had he dutifully, legally and officially honoured his adoptive father as a divus of the Roman state. He "had come into being" through the Julian star and was therefore the divi filius (son of the divinity).[53] But where Caesar had failed, Octavian had succeeded: he had restored the pax deorum (divinely ordained peace) and re-founded Rome through "August augury".[54] In 27 BC he was voted – and accepted – the elevated title of Augustus.[55]

As to the causes of the fall of the Roman Empire there can be several. Edward Gibbon argued it was damaged by the advent of Christianity, which of course was opposed to the deification of emperors. Other causes can be economical, the inefficiency of slavery or excessive regulation and taxation.

We're not paying much attention in Italy. La Stampa remarks the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome is dirty and neglected and very few celebrations are scheduled.
« Last Edit: August 20, 2014, 22:14 by continentàl »

Atlantis

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Re: Caesar Augusto
« Reply #3 on: August 20, 2014, 02:14 »
As to the causes of the fall of the Roman Empire there can be several. Edward Gibbon argued it was damaged by the advent of Christianity, which of course was opposed to the deification of emperors.

This confirms my hunch. The trend towards deification of the Roman emperor could have been attractive to the Romans but not to the many different ethnic groups with their different religions. Therefore, a universal religion, like Christianity had to replace the deification of the emperor. Thus, deification was the beginning of the end.


Primavera

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Re: Caesar Augusto
« Reply #4 on: August 20, 2014, 05:11 »
Didn't knew about Zaragoza. It should had joined Braga, Lugo and Astorga in the celebrations.

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Bracarenses saíram à rua para assinalar os dois mil anos da morte do Imperador César Augusto

Milhares de Bracarenses saíram à rua para assistir ao cortejo comemorativo do Bimilenário da morte do Imperador César Augusto, que se iniciou às 21h30, na Avenida Central, e terminou às 22h00 na noite de Sábado, no Rossio da Sé, onde coube ao Senador Tibério fazer o Elogio Fúnebre. Também as cidades Augustas de Astorga e Lugo, com as quais o Município de Braga assinou um protocolo de colaboração durante a Braga Romana 2014, assinalaram a data com cerimónia idêntica.

Segundo Lídia Dias, vereadora da Cultura, esta foi uma cerimónia com uma forte componente ´lúdica e educativa´ que permitiu que a Braga Romana ´saísse das fronteiras´ dos cinco dias tradicionais de comemoração que têm lugar durante o mês de Maio.

“Cumprimos uma cerimónia acordada entre as três cidades Augustas e que serviu para as pessoas aprenderam mais relativamente ao nosso legado romano”, afirmou Lídia Dias, mostrando-se extremamente satisfeita com a adesão da população à iniciativa: “Os próprios turistas também aderiram e receberam muito bem esta cerimónia”.

“Bracara Augusta” recriou o Funeral do “seu” imperador “Funnus Imperatoris”. Na Avenida Central, o corpo do Imperador foi velado, seguindo depois a pompa ´funebris´ pelo Largo de S. Martinho, Rua do Souto, Largo do Paço, Largo Dom João Peculiar, Rua Dom Diogo de Sousa, Rua do Cabido e, finalmente, Rossio da Sé.

Já no Rossio da Sé, o leito do imperador foi colocado na pira e o Senador Tibério leu o Laudatio funebris (elogio fúnebre) de Augusto, para de seguida ser cremado, permitindo assim que a sua alma cumprisse a Apotheosis (obtenção do grau divino).

http://www.bragatv.pt/artigo/2262

JoseRuiz

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Re: Caesar Augusto
« Reply #5 on: August 20, 2014, 18:17 »
Didn't knew about Zaragoza. It should had joined Braga, Lugo and Astorga in the celebrations.

Hi LEF, thanks for your news.

In Zaragoza the 'Year of Augustus', a year of events in his honor.

I send you two links (the brochure is too big file) with some about Roman ruins in Zaragoza.

http://www.zaragoza.es/ciudad/museos/ruta-caesaraugusta.htm
http://www.zaragoza.es/contenidos/museos/museos_ccesp.pdf
 

JoseRuiz

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Re: Caesar Augusto
« Reply #6 on: August 20, 2014, 18:30 »
My dear Atlantis, about
 
Tribute to the tyrant and death to democracy? Or did I get something wrong here?

I think Continental has been sufficiently didactic, but I'll explain a little more:

Although he was an emperor, and I am a republican citizen, I recognize him as a great politician and the founder of my city and I pay tribute honoring his memory

Caesar Augusta was founded in 14 BC as an immune colony, where soldiers from the legions who fought with Caesar Augustus in Hispania from 29 to 26 BC were integrated into the Iberian Salduie, forming a new Roman colonial city of mixed character, as Estrabón reflected in his Geography (III, 2, 15).

About

Perhaps the Latins among us can enlighten a poor barbarian, ...

Jeje, Atlantis…don’t worry, here I'm to show you the right way to the truth and wisdom.

We write in the Latin alphabet and we count with Arabic numerals. Romans and Arabs invaded Spain; both were fought, but both left culture, art and knowledge. However, the Visigoths (northern invaders) they didn't contribute anything.

My good barbarian friend, perhaps in your barbarian condition, you have a cultural deficit. However I am highly educated and very learned, because I have seen many movies of Romans (peplum movies, you know). I recommend it to increase your knowledge about. :D
 

Conti

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Re: Caesar Augusto
« Reply #7 on: August 20, 2014, 23:01 »
This confirms my hunch. The trend towards deification of the Roman emperor could have been attractive to the Romans but not to the many different ethnic groups with their different religions. Therefore, a universal religion, like Christianity had to replace the deification of the emperor. Thus, deification was the beginning of the end.

Actually, my understanding is that the deification of kings or emperors was a feature of what we now call the Middle East, not of Greece or Rome. After Alexander the Great died his Asian empire broke up. Several hellenistic kingdoms under the rule of Macedonian or Greek dynasties replaced the empire. The culture was a hybrid of Greek and Oriental whereby Greek became the language of high culture and diplomacy. Under the pressure of Oriental traditions the rulers were soon deified in spite of their Greek culture. Persian emperors and Egyptian pharaos had been regarded as divine for centuries before Alexander.

Something similar seems to have happened in the Roman empire. Deification was very un-Roman, but it was necessary to legitimize Roman power in the eyes of the Oriental masses in the eastern, hellenistic half of the Roman empire because it was too ingrained in the eastern mindset that monarchs were gods.

I don't think the emperor's ethnicity was a problem to the worshiping masses which would have required Christianity as a non-ethnic alternative. Later in history Roman citizenship was granted to an increasing number of provinces (conquered, non Latin countries) and several Roman emperors were provincial by birth or descent.

I regard Christianity as different from both the republican mindset of Greece and Rome and the autocratic mindset of the East. By refusing to worship emperors as a consequence of their belief in one God, Christians depleted the ancient world of the countless deities that inhabited it and created a world where man ultimately owes loyalty to something other than the state, thus making a distinction (not a separation) between religion and politics. Religion and politics were one thing in pre-Christian antiquity.
« Last Edit: August 20, 2014, 23:05 by continentàl »

JoseRuiz

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Re: Caesar Augusto
« Reply #8 on: August 24, 2014, 23:27 »
The Ara Pacis in color excites in the bimillennium of the  death of Augusto
 
08/23/2014 - EFE, Rome

The Ara Pacis, the imposing monument built to celebrate the victories of Augustus and the beginning of the Pax Romana, these days regains its original colors resulting in a unique spectacle that is enthusiastic to Rome celebrating the two thousand years of death its first emperor.

More (en español) on:
http://www.teinteresa.es/noticias/Ara-Pacis-entusiasma-bimilenario-Augusto_0_1198680440.html

Lugdu

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Re: Caesar Augusto
« Reply #9 on: August 25, 2014, 17:06 »
I regard Christianity as different from both the republican mindset of Greece and Rome and the autocratic mindset of the East. By refusing to worship emperors as a consequence of their belief in one God, Christians depleted the ancient world of the countless deities that inhabited it and created a world where man ultimately owes loyalty to something other than the state, thus making a distinction (not a separation) between religion and politics. Religion and politics were one thing in pre-Christian antiquity.
[/quote
Heureusement que les païens continuaient le polythéisme, sinon nous aurions été très tôt un territoire, un roi, un dieu : mais nous avons eu tout le Moyen-Âge pour nous baigner dans toutes sortes de poly-gouvernences… ! ;D
je ne suis pas sûre que tout cela soit exact !! Il faut que je relise une Histoire de l'Europe… :o

aaroncooper

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Re: Caesar Augusto
« Reply #10 on: October 01, 2017, 11:37 »
Oh, I think that it is one of the biggest and bloodiest tyrant in history. It is very difficult to exaggerate his cruelty. So I can't understand people who admire his personality
History it is one of the most important things of mankind. And every people should know true history of his family, country and the whole planet